Journal of Materials NanoScience 2020-12-28T17:50:20+00:00 Editorial, J Material NanoScience Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Material NanoScience is an international peer-reviewed journal for publcation of research in the field of Materials Sciences, Materials Chemistry, Functional Materials, NanoScience, Nanobiotechnology, Biomaterials, Physics and Engineering of Materials.</p> Nanoparticles in radiopharmaceutical sciences: Review of the fundamentals, characterization techniques and future challenges 2020-08-03T02:26:19+00:00 Sandrine HUCLIER-MARKAI Cyrille Alliot Serge Battu <p>Nanoparticles are important players in modern medicine, with broad clinical applications ranging from contrast agents in imaging to carriers for drug and gene delivery into tumors. They combine the advantages of multiplexed analytical tools in a single support, offering new possibilities for targeting, sensing and curing pathologies, particularly in nuclear medicine. There is a trend towards integrating the diagnostic and therapeutic functions of nanoparticles, resulting in significantly improved and personalized treatment of disease. Various kinds of nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy were engineered since the last decade. For clinical translation, pharmacokinetics and toxicity must be evaluated to meet FDA or Eur. Pharmacopeia requirements. To this aim, a full and exhaustive characterization of these systems must be done such as morphology; chemical composition, surface charge, size and size distribution. The different analytical methods that could fully characterizing nanoparticles are reviewed; together with their advantages, drawbacks and limitations</p> 2020-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ScienceIn Publishing Mechanical and structural properties of aluminium nanocomposites reinforced with cerium oxide nanoparticles fabricated by powder metallurgy 2020-10-22T11:58:12+00:00 Naveen Kumar Kumar Navin Richard J. Ball Rajnish Kurchania <p>(1) Al +&nbsp;CeO<sub>2</sub> [where, &nbsp;0, 1, 2, 3 &amp; 4wt.%] nanocomposites were synthesised by powder metallurgy method. The structural and mechanical properties of the synthesised nanocomposites were studied in details. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of ceria (CeO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles with face centered cubic (fcc) structure with an average crystallite size of 12.80nm by co-precipitation technique. The structural analysis of the nanocomposites confirms the uniform dispersion of CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles in Al-matrix. There is a significant development in the hardness value Al was observed due to CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles and maximum hardness value was obtained for 2wt.% CeO<sub>2 </sub>in Al-matrix whereas an increase in wear is observed for Al-CeO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposites as compared to aluminium. The corrosion analysis confirms the increase in corrosion resistance of Al-CeO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposite with maximum corrosion resistance efficiency of 83.75% for 4wt.% CeO<sub>2</sub> in&nbsp; Al matrix.</p> 2020-11-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ScienceIn Understanding the role of Al2O3 formed during isothermal oxidation in a dual phase AlCoCrFeNi2.1 Eutectic High-Entropy Alloy 2020-10-06T11:09:16+00:00 Mainak Saha <p>In recent times, there has been a significant volume of work on Eutectic High Entropy Alloys (EHEAs) owing to their remarkable castability combined with excellent mechanical properties, which aids in clearing obstacles for their technological applications. One of the most common EHEAs, which has been of huge interest, at present, primarily owing to its solidification and tensile behavior, is AlCoCrFeNi<sub>2.1</sub>. However, in order to aim for high temperature applications, oxidation behaviour of material is one of the major aspects which needs to be extensively investigated. To this end, the present work aims to study the phases evolved during oxidation at elevated temperatures as high as 950 and 1000<sup>o</sup>C in AlCoCrFeNi<sub>2.1 </sub>using XRD and also to determine the rate law followed for isothermal oxidation of this alloy at 950 and 1000<sup>o</sup>C, in order to understand the role of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> phase formed during isothermal oxidation at 950 and 1000<sup>o</sup>C.</p> 2020-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ScienceIn Microwave-assisted synthesis of copper nanoparticles: influence of copper nanoparticles morphology on the antimicrobial activity 2020-09-21T05:20:48+00:00 Ravikumar Naik S.A. Shivashankar P.J. Bindu <div> <p class="05Keyword">Among the several transition metals known to mankind, the synthesis of Cu has remained a major challenge owing to their instinctive oxidative power under ambient conditions. Microwave assisted synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using different types of copper-?-diketonates complexesand glycine as reducing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) techniques. The results of FE-SEM exhibited that the CuNPs of various shapes and size, depended upon the type of copper-?-diketonates complexes used. Furthermore, all the CuNPs exhibited good antimicrobial activity against both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The result shows that, the cubic CuNPs derived from Cu(acac)<sub>2</sub> demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains.&nbsp;</p> </div> 2020-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ScienceIn Publishing SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus and nanoscale particles trapping, tracking and tackling using nanoaperture optical tweezers: A recent advances review 2020-12-28T17:50:20+00:00 Rajiv Kumar Kiran Gulia M.P. Chaudhary M.A. Shah <p>Recent advances in nanoscale technologies have provided advanced tools that can be easily used to trap, track, and manipulate individual nanoscale particles and viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses accurately. Among the promising strategies that exist to date, optical forces based techniques are the leading tools in this task. Perfectly, focused lasers act as “optical tweezers,” and can trap individual particles and viruses. These forces can be applied to study nanomaterials, viruses, the building blocks of a quantum computer, and collision processes occurring between molecules in a better way than ever before. These cutting-edge tools are capable of trapping, tracking, and manipulating at the nanoscale in three dimensions. The optical tweezers have been used within biological and nanotechnological fields for trapping, tracking, and manipulating nanoparticles, and viruses with high flexibility, precision, and integration. The outcomes are important breakthroughs in the field of molecular mechanics. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical tools employed in optical trapping, tracking, and manipulation of different particles at the nanoscale. The trapping of nanoparticles down to single-digit nanometer range and individual SARS-CoV-2 are the main features discussed here. Optical tweezers are also capable of sizing and probing acoustic modes of a small virus such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. The optical tweezers can perform tracking of nanoparticles in three?dimensional with high?resolution by forwarding scattered light. Optical tweezers are used to grab single molecules and measure events that are occurring and employed for measuring forces and measuring distance. A miniature and modular system creates a reliable and mobile optical trap that has more potential to be applied in optical trapping technologies.</p> 2020-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ScienceIn