Nanoparticles in radiopharmaceutical sciences: Review of the fundamentals, characterization techniques and future challenges
Keywords:Drug Delivery, Drug targeting, Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, Nanoparticle Characterization, Field-Flow Fractionation, Nano-PET
Nanoparticles are important players in modern medicine, with broad clinical applications ranging from contrast agents in imaging to carriers for drug and gene delivery into tumors. They combine the advantages of multiplexed analytical tools in a single support, offering new possibilities for targeting, sensing and curing pathologies, particularly in nuclear medicine. There is a trend towards integrating the diagnostic and therapeutic functions of nanoparticles, resulting in significantly improved and personalized treatment of disease. Various kinds of nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy were engineered since the last decade. For clinical translation, pharmacokinetics and toxicity must be evaluated to meet FDA or Eur. Pharmacopeia requirements. To this aim, a full and exhaustive characterization of these systems must be done such as morphology; chemical composition, surface charge, size and size distribution. The different analytical methods that could fully characterizing nanoparticles are reviewed; together with their advantages, drawbacks and limitations
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